Legislative History of the Sixteenth Amendment

The Intent of the lawmaker is the paramount principle by which Judges are obligated to rule on the validity of laws. If the words of any statute or law are vague, confusing, or difficult to understand, Judges are obligated to check the debates
of the members of Congress to find out what the intent was, pertaining to the law under consideration. (Perhaps this would explain the current rash of bills being passed in Congress without ANY debate?)

So let's review some of the Congressional Record on 16th Amendment:
"… it is now proposed to make up the deficit by the imposition of a general income tax, in the form and substance of almost exactly the same character as…was held by the Supreme Court to be a direct tax, and therefore not within the power of the Federal Government to impose unless apportioned among the several states according to population…The decision… left power to levy an excise tax, which accomplished he same purpose as a corporate income tax and is free from certain objections to the proposed income tax."

President William Taft, in his message to Congress on June 16, 1909;
Congressional Record pg. 3344 (O.K. simple. Excise taxes are "indirect" taxes since they can be passed on to another, or otherwise be simply avoided by not partaking therein. e.g. One can easily avoid the federal excise tax on beer or alcohol by not buying such. So logically same applies with certain "income" activities such as "investing" in Securities which are regulated by the federal gov`t / S.E.C.)

Congress had some enlightening comments pertaining to Intent:
"… the Finance Committee… considered not only the question of tazing corporations,… but also the income tax…We felt…it would be indelicate, at least, for Congress of the United States to pass another measure and ask the Supreme Court to pass upon it, when they had already passed upon the propostition." Senator Frank Flint; Calif., Congressional Record pg. 3936.

"It is…a tax upon the right to do business of any kind as a corporation. And I should like to ask the Senator from California whether I have expressed the real construction and interpretation of the amendment as he views it." Senator Albert Cummins; Iowa, Congressional Record pg. 3976, June 30, 1909

To which Senator Flint from Calif., Answers:
"I may state…that it is an excise tax upon the privilege of doing business." Citation as above President Taft and Senator Flint above were referring to Pollock v. Farmers Loan & Trust. In case Anyone erroneously considers that the "Income" Tax is a "Direct" Tax applied under the further erroneous presumption of Art. IV Sec. 3 Clause 2, is still lingering around take Note:

Senator Norris Brown of Nebraska introduced Senate Joint Resolution No. 39, June 17, 1909 which stated that Congress was to have "the power to lay direct taxes on incomes without apportionment." Eleven days later Senate Joint Resolution No. 40 came out of the Finance Committee as an Excise Tax and the word "direct" had been eliminated.

Ordinary Citizens/Workers do Not have any granted privileges upon which an excise tax can be legitimately levied. Ergo, most citizens are exempt from the "income" tax and are simply being duped and/or defrauded.

Leviticus 19:36; Deuteronomy 25:15-16

I John 4:6


Or Accept what is otherwise Deserved!

Wisdom is the principal thing; Therefore get wisdom. And in all yourgetting, Get understanding. Proverbs 4:7

"vivus spartacus"
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