The Intent of the lawmaker is
the paramount principle by which Judges are
obligated to rule on the validity of laws.
If the words of any statute or law are vague,
confusing, or difficult to understand, Judges
are obligated to check the debates
of the members of Congress to find out what
the intent was, pertaining to the law under
consideration. (Perhaps this would explain
the current rash of bills being passed in
Congress without ANY debate?)
So let's review some of the Congressional
Record on 16th Amendment:
"… it is now proposed to make up the
deficit by the imposition of a general income
tax, in the form and substance of almost exactly
the same character as…was held by the Supreme
Court to be a direct tax, and therefore not
within the power of the Federal Government
to impose unless apportioned among the several
states according to population…The decision…
left power to levy an excise tax, which accomplished
he same purpose as a corporate income tax
and is free from certain objections to the
proposed income tax."
President William Taft, in his message to
Congress on June 16, 1909;
Congressional Record pg. 3344 (O.K. simple.
Excise taxes are "indirect" taxes
since they can be passed on to another, or
otherwise be simply avoided by not partaking
therein. e.g. One can easily avoid the federal
excise tax on beer or alcohol by not buying
such. So logically same applies with certain
"income" activities such as "investing"
in Securities which are regulated by the federal
gov`t / S.E.C.)
Congress had some enlightening comments pertaining
"… the Finance Committee… considered
not only the question of tazing corporations,…
but also the income tax…We felt…it would be
indelicate, at least, for Congress of the
United States to pass another measure and
ask the Supreme Court to pass upon it, when
they had already passed upon the propostition."
Senator Frank Flint; Calif., Congressional
Record pg. 3936.
"It is…a tax upon the right to do business
of any kind as a corporation. And I should
like to ask the Senator from California whether
I have expressed the real construction and
interpretation of the amendment as he views
it." Senator Albert Cummins; Iowa, Congressional
Record pg. 3976, June 30, 1909
To which Senator Flint from Calif., Answers:
"I may state…that it is an excise tax
upon the privilege of doing business."
Citation as above President Taft and Senator
Flint above were referring to Pollock v. Farmers
Loan & Trust. In case Anyone erroneously
considers that the "Income" Tax
is a "Direct" Tax applied under
the further erroneous presumption of Art.
IV Sec. 3 Clause 2, is still lingering around
Senator Norris Brown of Nebraska introduced
Senate Joint Resolution No. 39, June 17, 1909
which stated that Congress was to have "the
power to lay direct taxes on incomes without
apportionment." Eleven days later Senate
Joint Resolution No. 40 came out of the Finance
Committee as an Excise Tax and the word "direct"
had been eliminated.
Ordinary Citizens/Workers do Not have any
granted privileges upon which an excise tax
can be legitimately levied. Ergo, most citizens
are exempt from the "income" tax
and are simply being duped and/or defrauded.
Leviticus 19:36; Deuteronomy 25:15-16
I John 4:6
CAMPAIGN FOR LIBERTY!
Or Accept what is otherwise Deserved!
Wisdom is the principal thing; Therefore
get wisdom. And in all yourgetting, Get understanding.
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